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Synthesis and Characterization of Mixed Ligands Palladium(II) Complexes with Bis(benzimidazole)alkane, Bis(methylthiobenzimidazole)alkane or Bis(3-methylimid- azolate)propane and Saccharinate, Thiosaccharinate or Benzothiazolinate

A thesis submitted to the

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tikritمناقشة دكتوراه محمد حميد صالح

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the

Degree of

Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry Sciences


Mohammed Hameed Saleh Al-Jibori


Prof. Dr. Subhi A. M. Al-Jibori Prof. Dr. Nabeel Hadi Buttrus Asst. Prof. Dr. Jonathan A. Iggo

College of Science (deceased) Chemistry Department

Chemistry Department College of science Liverpool University

Tikrit University Chemistry Department United Kingdom

Iraq Mosul Universityمناقشة دكتوراه محمد حميد صالح



This thesis includes synthesis and characterization of Palladium(II) complexes of 1,3-bis(benzimidazole)propane(L1);1,4-bis (benzimidazole) butane (L2); 1,3-bis(2-methylthiobenzimidazole)propane (L3); 1,4-bis(2-methylthi obenzimidazole)butane (L4); and 1,3-bis(3-methylimidazole) propane dibromide (L5), with saccharinate, thiosaccharinate or benzisothiaz- olinate

The prepared complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared and 1H nmr spectroscopy. The (L4) was characterized by elemental analysis : i.r, 1H nmr, 13C nmr, x-ray crystallography and mass spectroscopy. This thesis includes three chapters as follows:

Chapter one: Is an introduction to chemistry of Palladium(II), ligands used in this work and aim of this work. Chapter two: describes the preparation of ligands and their complexes. Chapter three: describes the results and discussion of these results which included, three parts:

Part one: Preparing of four types of the bis(benzimidazole) ligands (L1, L2, L3 and L4) from the reaction of benzimidazole with 1,3-dibromopropane or 1,4-dibromobutane in 2:1 molar ratio.

Part two: Preparation of [PdCl2(Lm)]n, (Lm=L1 and L2) from the reaction of Lm ligands with Na2PdCl4 in (1:1) molar ratio, the Lm ligands were acting as bidentate bridging bonded to Pd(II) to give polymeric complexes. Treatment of the [PdCl2(Lm)]n complexes with (saccharinate (sac), thiosaccharinate (tsac), benzisothiazolinate (Bit) ligands afforded [Pd(A)2(Lm)]n complexes (where A=sac, tsac, or Bit). The Lm ligand bonded as bidentate bridging ligands whereas the (A) bonded as monodentate ligands (sac: bonded through the nitrogen atom, tsac bonded through the sulfur atom, and Bit bonded through the nitrogen atom) towards palladium(II) ion to give square planar arrangement around Pd(II).

Reaction of Na2PdCl4 with (L3 and L4) in (1:1) mole ratio afforded [PdCl2(Lm)]n (Lm=L3 and L4) bonded to Pd(II) through the sulfur atom of (Methylethio) group, to give squar planar complexes around the Pd(II) ion. Treatment of [PdCl2(Lm)]n (Lm=L3 and L4) with heterocyclic ligands (sac, tsac, and Bit) in (1:2) molar ratio gave [Pd(A)2(Lm)]n (Lm=L3 and L4). The Lm ligands behave as bidentate ligands bonded through the sulfur atoms, whereas the (A=sac, tsac, and Bit) ligand bonded as monodentate ligands to give a squar planar geometry around the Pd(II) ion.

Part three: describes preparation of the carbene ligand 1,3-bis(3-methylimidazolium-1-yl)propane dibromide (L5) from the reaction of one mole of 1,3-dibromopropane with two moles of 3-methylimidazole. It also describes the preparation of cis-[PdBr2(L5)] from the reaction of (L5) ligand with [Pd(OAc)2] in (1:1) molar ratio. (L5) behaves as a bidentate chelating ligand bonded through the carbene atoms.

Treatment of cis-[PdBr2(L5)] with two moles of heterocyclic ligands (A=sac, tsac, and Bit) gave cis-[Pd(A)2(L5)] complexes, the (A) ligands bonded as monodentate chelate ligands whereas the (L5) ligand bonded as a bidentate chelate ligand to afford square planar arrangment around the Pd(II) ion.

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